Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration [Desmond Dinan] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Desmond Dinan cuts. Desmond Dinan. · Rating details · ratings · 6 reviews. Ever Closer Union clearly explains the complexities of European integration from the s to the. Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, 4th edition. Desmond Dinan. Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, 4th edition.

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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Ever Closer Union clearly explains the complexities of European integration from the s to the present.

Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration by Desmond Dinan

This new edition retains the familiar three-part structure – history, institutions, and policies – but incorporates expanded coverage of both enlargement issues and constitutional change. New policy and institutional developments are thoroughly explored, and an entire Ever Closer Union clearly explains the complexities of European integration from the s to the present.

New policy and institutional developments are thoroughly explored, and an entirely new chapter examines the decisionmaking dynamics among the Commission, Council, and Parliament.

The completely revised chapter on the complicated EU-U. Paperbackpages.

To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Ever Closer Unionplease sign up. Lists with This Book. May 03, Unio Painter rated it it was amazing.

This is possibly the most comprehensive book about the European Union you will ever read.

Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration – Desmond Dinan – Google Books

Dinan is one of the foremost scholars on the EU, and his coverage of the historical development of the EU and the pertinent policy issues is extensive. It is a long read, but a must read if you want an authoritative source. Aug 23, Aliya rated it it was amazing Shelves: I also had to read this book as my professor, Dr. Dinan, was rewriting it, or should I updating it. The Lisbon Treaty had just been put into place in the European Union States and he had to explain what changes were made.

This book more about the history and governmental structure of the EU.

Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration

Once one reads the book, the EU is definitely clear as to why everything is evver the way it is today. It is a very complicated subjected I must.

Sep 13, Lewis rated it really liked it. A dloser decent introduction to those wishing to get into EU Politics. Much more thorough than alternatives, but should be kept as a place to start further research rather than the only thing you ever read on the matter.

Mar 08, Lasha is currently reading it.

Aug 31, Caro rated it really liked it Shelves: Is a pretty good book for people that dont have any background in the EU and how it works I recommend this book to those that dont have any idea about the EU. Feb 05, darya rated it did not like it. Gonca Koksal rated it it was ok Sep 23, Rachelle rated it it desmknd ok Mar 23, Ryan Welborn rated it it was ok Sep 20, Staci rated it it was ok Sep 13, Gordon rated it liked it Feb 08, Monica Bielski boris rated it it was ok Oct 16, Yvette Tetreault rated it really liked it Jul deesmond, Matt Bucklin rated it it was ok May 24, Gvantsa rated it it was amazing Apr 28, Cady rated it really liked it Aug 27, Salvatore Ippolito rated it it was amazing Jun 21, Nina rated it it was amazing Apr 21, Erina rated it it was amazing Jul 02, Raluca rated it liked it Jun 05, Reader rated it liked it Dec 08, Krista rated it it was ok May 31, Frank C Jones rated it liked it Jan 14, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

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These special applications are defined in DIN EN (VDE ): , section By harmonising the core colours of cables and wires through the in- stallation .. Colour-code according to IEC Colour of. Learn what each of the various colors mean in wire color coding standards. This standard was originally published as IEC , but was merged into IEC. The standard has been withdrawn; the fourth edition (IEC ) was 2: adopted the IEC colours for fixed wiring in the United Kingdom [1].

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International standard 6046 Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification – Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations and conductors defines basic safety principles for identifying electrical conductors by colours or numerals, for example in electricity distribution wiring. The standard has been coours the witing edition IEC If a circuit includes a neutral or midpoint conductor, then it should be identified by a blue colour preferably light blue.

Light blue is the color used to identify intrinsically safe conductors, and must not be used for any other type of conductor. For a single AC phase: The three countries United States, Canada and Japan are mentioned in a note in the standard for using different colours:.

British Standard BS This extension is expected to be adopted across Europe and may even find its way into a future revision of IEC The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, the IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving the interchangeability of fuses in international trade. All fuses of different technologies tested to meet IEC standards will have similar time-current characteristics, north American standards iev the replaceable element only the fuse.

IEC unifies the electrical characteristics iecc fuses that are interchangeable with fuses built to colohrs British, German. The standard identifies application categories which classify the time-current characteristic of type of fuse. The application category is a two-digit code, the first letter is a if the fuse is for short-circuit protection only, an associated device must provide overload protection.

The first letter is g if the fuse is intended to operate even with currents as low as those that cause it to blow in one hour and these are considered general-purpose fuses for protection of wires.

Fuses of the same application category can be substituted for each other provided the voltage rating of the circuit does not exceed the fuse rating and they are available in five different body sizes, with ratings from 2 A up to A.

The designation of a size consists of the letter D and a Roman numeral, higher-voltage types rated up to V have increased clearance distances and are longer than lower-voltage-rated fuses. D0-type fuses are similar but have a smaller, cylindrical body and they are available in three different sizes with ratings from 2 A up to Colpurs. In some jurisdictions, replacement of the cartridge by unskilled personnel is allowed only for fuses up to a certain maximum rating.

If the fuse cartridge is inserted into the socket without the cap, fuseholders may be secured by screws to a panel, attached to coours bars, or mounted on DIN rails. For the Neozed fuses, there are also fuse bases with integrated disconnecting switches, changing fuses with the circuit off increases the safety of the user. With new versions of these load disconnecting switches, the cartridges are no longer screwed.

Traditional diazed fuse holders are made as a metal envelope covered with non-conducting porcelain cover. Under mechanical stress it is possible for the cover to crack partially or fully and it may happen if a fuse holder was accidentally dropped or someone was using too much force to screw it in.

Wiring colour codes

Uncovered metal envelopes present a risk of shock and should be replaced immediately under extreme precautions by trained personnel. The smaller end cap has a diameter that varies with the fuse rating, the fixed part of the fuse holder contains a gauge ring, which will accept end caps up to a certain diameter. Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches wide, the inch dimension includes the edges, or ears, that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws.

Common uses include server, audio, and scientific lab equipment, the height of the electronic modules is also standardized as multiples of 1.

The industry standard rack cabinet is 42U tall, the term relay rack appeared first in the world of telephony. Bythe term was also being used in railroad signaling, there is little evidence that the dimensions of these early racks were standardized.

The inch rack format with rack-units of 1. The inch rack format has remained constant while the technology that is mounted within it has changed considerably, nineteen-inch racks in two-post or four-post form hold most equipment in modern data centers, ISP facilities, and professionally designed corporate server rooms. They allow for dense hardware configurations without occupying excessive floorspace or requiring shelving, nineteen-inch racks are also often used to house professional audio and video equipment, including amplifiers, effects units, interfaces, headphone amplifiers, and even small scale audio mixers.

Thus, a 1U rackmount computer is not 1. This gap allows a bit of room above and below a piece of equipment so it may be removed without binding on the adjacent equipment. State-of-the-art rackmount cases are now constructed of thermo stamped composite, carbon fiber. Originally, the holes were tapped with a particular screw thread. Tapping large numbers of holes that may never be used is expensive, nonetheless tapped-hole racks are still in use, examples include telephone exchanges, network cabling panels, broadcast studios and some government and military applications.

Wiring colour codes – DIYWiki

The tapped-hole rack was first replaced by clearance-hole racks, the holes are large enough to permit a bolt to be freely inserted through without binding, and bolts are fastened in place using cage nuts.

In the event of a nut being stripped out or a bolt breaking, production of clearance-hole racks is less expensive because tapping the holes is eliminated and replaced with fewer, less expensive, cage nuts.

The next innovation in design has been the square-hole rack. IEC — IEC is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes. There is a range of plugs and sockets of different sizes with differing numbers of pins, depending on the current supplied, the fittings are popular in open-air conditions, as they include IP44 weather-proofing.

The blue fittings are used for providing weather-proofed exterior sockets for outdoor apparatus. In camping situations, the large 32 A blue fittings provide power to static caravans, whilst the smaller blue 16 A version powers touring caravans, the red three-phase versions are used for three-phase portable equipment.

IEC specifies general functional and safety requirements for any form of industrial high-current power connector, IEC specifies a range of mains power connectors with circular housings, and different numbers and arrangements of pins for different applications. In both cases, the rating applies when detached or mated, but not during the mating process, the more common IP44 variant features a spring-loaded hinged cap over the socket.

When a plug is inserted, the cap hooks over a lug on the plug, fixed connectors are usually installed angled downward to prevent water entering. The IP67 variant includes a colourz and twist-lock ring which seals the two together, the two can be intermated, at the cost of the locking mechanisms, they are only held by friction. The connectors come in four current ratings 16,32,63 or A per pin, All consist of cylindrical connector pins arranged in a circle, with the earth pin 2 mm larger than the others.

This colourw surrounded by a shroud on the male connector. The standard defines connectors with 3,4 and 5 pins, but a variant with 7 pins is commercially available. The key protrudes an additional cllours or 4 mm beyond the coliurs diameter, connectors rated colouts 63 A and A may optionally be equipped with a 6 mm pilot contact.

This smaller pin in the centre of the connector is shorter than the others, designed to make all the other pins when connecting a plug and socket. IEC — Different types of connector are specified for different combinations of current, temperature and earthing requirements.

Interconnection couplers allow a supply from a piece of equipment or an appliance to be made available to other equipment or appliances. Couplers described under these standards have standardized current and temperature ratings, each type of coupler is identified by a standard sheet number.

Kettle plug is a term used for the high-temperature C16 appliance inlet. Kettle plug is sometimes used to refer to regular temperature-rated C13 and C14 connectors. Detachable appliance couplers are used in equipment, measuring instruments, IT environments.

Each appliances power system must be adapted to the different plugs used in different regions, instead, a country-specific power supply cord can be included in the product packaging, so that model variations are minimized and factory testing is simplified.

A cord which is fitted with non-rewireable connectors at both ends is termed a cord set, appliance manufacturing may be simplified by mounting an appliance coupler directly on the printed circuit board. Assembly and handling of colurs appliance is coloura if the cord can be removed without much effort. Appliances can be used in another country easily, with a change of the power wirinb cord. The power supply cord can be replaced if damaged, because it is a standardized part that can colousr unplugged and re-inserted.

Safety hazards, maintenance expenditure and repairs are minimized, IEC is divided into several parts, IECGeneral Requirements specifies two-pole and two-pole with earth couplers intended for the connection dolours a supply cord to electrical appliances. As from IECthis part also applies to interconnection couplers which enable the connection and disconnection of an appliance to a cord leading to another appliance. This part of the no longer includes standard sheets which have been moved to a new part first published in IECSewing machine couplers specifies couplers which are not interchangeable with other couplers from IEC and they are rated no higher than 2.

IEC Interconnection couplers for household 6046 similar equipment and this section was withdrawn in January AES3 — AES3 is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices.

6046 standard has been revised in and and is published in AES, worldwide, it is the most commonly used method for digitally interconnecting audio equipment. Type I connections use balanced, 3-conductor, ohm twisted pair cabling with XLR connectors, Type I connections colour most often used in professional installations and are considered the AES3 standard connector. The hardware interface is implemented using RS line drivers and receivers. The AES-3id standard defines a ohm BNC electrical variant of AES3 and this uses the same cabling, patching and infrastructure as analogue or digital video, and is thus common in the broadcast industry.

For information on the synchronization of digital audio structures, see the AES11 standard, the ability to insert unique identifiers into uec AES3 bit stream is covered by the AES52 standard. No attempt was made to use a carrier able to support both rates, instead, AES3 allows the data to be run at any rate, and encoding the clock, the basic unit of transmission is the frame. Frames contain 64 time slots and are produced once per sample time, at the highest level, each consecutive frames are grouped into an audio wiging.

It was conceived as a common mains plug and socket standard for use in territories with V mains, the standard was originally published by the International Electrotechnical Commission inthe current edition is ed2.

Part three, IECdefines a family of low voltage connectors. The sockets are small enough that two can be installed in the space taken by jec single Schuko or BS socket, the plugs are slightly larger than the Europlug and provide much more reliable contact. The socket has either a 10 mm deep recess or a 12 mm high rim and it ensures that the protective-earth pin establishes contact before the line and neutral pins. Sockets are required to have shutters for the line and neutral apertures, however, the IEC standard explicitly discourages the use of multi-standard sockets, claiming that such sockets are likely to create safety problems when used with plugs from other countries.

IEC plugs are similar in size and shape to the Europlug and they are nominally The 3-pin Class I plug is 17 mm high, whereas the 2-pin Class Coloirs plug is 14 mm high, the parallel side faces are 26 mm apart, and the two pairs of side faces are orthogonal to each other.

The line and neutral pin are on centres spaced at 19 mm, the pins are 19 mm in length with a diameter of 4. In common with the Europlug there is a sleeve around the base of the line. The 3-pin version has a round protective-earth pin of the length and diameter as the line and neutral pins. The protective-earth pins center is offset 3 mm from the point between the line and neutral pin. South Africa is the country to have incorporated IEC plugs.

International Electrotechnical Commission — The IEC also manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. Init published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical, electronic and this effort continues, and the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries.

It has regional centres in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and North America, today, the IEC is the worlds leading international organization in its field, and its standards are adopted as national standards by its members. The work is done by some 10, electrical and electronics experts from industry, government, academia, test labs, IEC standards have numbers in the range — and their titles take a form such as IEC, Graphical symbols for use on equipment. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, national committees are constituted in different ways.

This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, another common use is to carry two channels of uncompressed digital audio from a CD player to an amplifying receiver. In order to both systems, as well as others that might be needed, the format has no defined data rate.

Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself. The is a set of design made to ensure that wind turbines are appropriately engineered against damage from hazards within the planned lifetime.

The standard concerns most aspects of the life from site conditions before construction.


BeagleBone Black is a low-cost, open source, community-supported development platform for ARM® Cortex™-A8 processor developers and hobbyists. I have no idea what indicates either an error condition or a successful operation, and the BeagleBone Black SRM does not seem to discuss it. BeagleBone Black. System. Reference Manual. Revision A4. January 2, Send all comments and errors concerning this document to the author at.

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This is the chapter web page to support the content in Chapter 2 of the book: The summary introduction to the chapter is as follows:. Install the certified drivers directly from: This book has been written and tested using the Debian release. It is recommended that xrm work through the book using this image and then update to the latest image once beagpebone have completed the book.

In Marcha new image was added as the official release: Debianbbeaglebone requires a revision C board or booting from the SD card — Notes are available on each chapter webpage for any impacts that new image have on the content in the book. Please use the comments section at the bottom of the chapter web pages if you notice any other compatibility differences that should be noted.

BeagleBone Black

On page 26 there is a note to warn you not to alter the MLO, u-boot. As of Linux 3. These files were moved to create a more distribution friendly default bootloader. It is not necessary to use these files at this point in the book, but please note this fact for future reference, particularly when performing tasks such as disabling the HDMI overlay by editing the uEnv.

If you wish, you can skip this section for the moment and come back to it later. If you are not familiar with Linux then please ignore this section—it is here for reference. Here are the steps required to create the SD card image on Linux:.

This gives you the image file: It should take 5 to 10 minutes for this write to complete. Here are the steps to flash the eMMC:. Here the digital resources referred to in the chapter web page beaglebonne provided.

All of the source code that is described in this book is available in a public GitHub repository: Derek Molloy Exploring BeagleBone repository. You can clone this repository on a Linux desktop computer or your BeagleBone using the command:.

Alternatively, you blwck download a full ZIP archive of the code using the following link: The Source Code web page lists all recent updates to this repository. There is only a small amount of code in this chapter that is related to Node. The code can be beagebone in the chp02 folder of the cloned repository. The formatted code is provided here for your convenience. It may also identify itself with Texas Instruments. You can see the Zenmap application in action in the image to the left where Are you sure that example is correct?

Hi Tom, You are correct — extundelete will not do anything at this point in the book, but is there for future reference should it be blakc to undelete a file at some point in the future.

However, it cannot be relied upon to be successful. At Locin the section where you are demonstrating the command to alter the display functionality of USR3 led, you have an error in the line:. Just checked in mine again this morning, with my iPad in both orientations portrait, landscape as sometimes that seems to change behavior.

Your instructions above were very helpful. I was having a lot of trouble trying to follow the instructions on the referenced sites. I meant to mention the whole process took me ten minutes, at which point it shut down the unit. At first I was worried that something went wrong, but then I connected it to my router and was able to boot, see the new version and set the password.

No time to do anything else right now. Hi Derek — Another rookie question. Which I did do successfully. My simple question is this, where did waveman come from? When you perform an apt-get update command the package lists are downloaded from the repositories. It is important that you do this to ensure that the latest versions of the package and any dependencies are installed.

You can actually find out the source location of a package in advance of installation by typing:. Hi Derek, I have a problem with an example from the book. When I try to execute SimpleWebServer. Does the page appear when you connect using the web browser. Alternatively, you could change the port number to another port, e. See if that resolves the issue. If that works then try to kill the old process using pkill node. Hi Derek, i have problems with my cloud9 IDE. I do not know what is going on.

Hi Victor, there are a few peculiarities with Cloud9. It is vitally important that you save the file after you enter the code. Then press the Run button at the top center. This gives you access to debugging functionality, but is not extremely intuitive. Hope that helps, Derek. Greetings…could you help me understand and possibly fix the following situations. In the following everything I refer to is with the debian boot.

I connect just fine, USB or via ethernet connected directly to routercan access w Putty, etc. The one question here is that after following the instructions on p. Does that make sense? Hi Dennis, I believe that is correct.

The route add does not persist across reboots unless you add the route -p flag. My concern with doing this is that if you wish to switch between Internet-over-USB and regular Ethernet this could be problematic.

Exploring BeagleBone – Chapter 2: The Beagle Board Software

The laptop problems seem strange. However, I have seen problems too — most problems I have seen are somewhat ironically caused by virus protection software and corporate lockdown tools.

Check for any such tools and double check that you are using the WiFi adapter many laptops have two for power management reasons and not the Ethernet adapter.

I hope that makes sense. Hi Derek, thanks for your reply. Hopes someone may find this info useful. Hi Derek, I have a problem when I try to write a new image for my rights. After create a SD card image I start to flashing my BBBit after 25 minutes start to blink as a heartbeat the four leds at the same time and it never ends.

Hi Carlos, it sounds like you are using a regular boot image rather than a flasher image. For the latest flasher image please use the link: Hi Xinzhe, it sounds like you have a Rev.

B board with a 2GB emmc. That image only works for Rev. C boards with a 4GB emmc. If it is a Rev. B board then you need to find the 2GB flasher image boack the same page.

How can I fix this? Should I burn an image on my BBB? Errors were encountered while processing: Hi Amir, it is not recommended that you use upgrade on the BeagleBone. The main issue is that bad things can happen if you run out of space on the eMMC during an upgrade. You should only update individual packages as you need them. You have probably run out of space on the eMMC. Even if you perform this on an SD card with plenty of spare capacity it can take hours.

It is much more straightforward to download the latest image and update packages individually as you have a specific need. It looks like it is going to be bexglebone useful.

Is this only for the Revision C Beaglebone Black? The direct link is currently: There is also a console image that frees up more space if you are using the BBB in headless form.

Long time fan of your videos, and now thoroughly enjoying your book, which I just picked up a couple of days ago. Several months ago I set up one of my BBB boards to connect to the Internet through the Serial over USB connection by following the instructions for one of your smr.

The procedure should be the same under Windows 8. If the sharing tab is visible but there is no drop-down tab that is usually because there is only one possible option.


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To create a series or add a work to it, go to a “work” page.

Technical Readouts – Battletech – Wayne’s Books RPG Reference

The “Common Knowledge” section now includes a “Series” field. Enter the name of the series to add the book to it. Works can belong to more than one series. In some techhnical, as with Chronicles of Narniadisagreements about order necessitate the creation of more than one series. If the series has an order, add a number or other descriptor in parenthesis after the series title eg.

By default, it sorts by the number, or alphabetically if there is no number.

If technicak want to force a particular order, use the character to divide the number and the descriptor. So, ” 0 prequel ” sorts by 0 under the label “prequel. Series was designed to cover groups of books generally understood as such see Wikipedia: Like many concepts in the book world, “series” is a somewhat fluid and contested notion. A good rule of thumb is that series have a conventional name and are intentional creationson the part of the author or publisher. For now, avoid forcing the issue with mere “lists” of works possessing an arbitrary shared characteristic, such as relating to a particular place.

Avoid series that cross authors, unless the authors were or became aware of the series identification eg. Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the “works” in question. So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. But the Loeb Classical Library is a series of editions, not of works. Home Groups Talk Zeitgeist. I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and if not signed in for advertising.

Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. BattleTech Technical Readouts Series by readouh. John Randall Daniel Braham. Giovanni Estrella De la Sangre.

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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. No twentieth-century American scientist is better known to a wider oiezas of people than Richard P. Feynman — —physicist, teacher, author, and cultural icon. His autobiographies and biographies have been read and enjoyed by millions of readers around the world, while his wit and eccentricities have made him the subject of TV specials and even a theatrical film.

Though slightly more challenging than the drscargar six, these lectures are more focused, delving into the most revolutionary discovery in twentieth-century physics: The notions that the flow of time is not a constant, that the mass of an object depends on its velocity, and that the speed of light is a constant no matter what the motion of the observer, at first seemed shocking to scientists and laymen alike. But, as Feynman shows so clearly and so entertainingly in the lectures chosen for this volume, these crazy notions taciles no mere dry principles of physics, but are things of beauty and elegance.

No one—not even Einstein himself—explained these difficult, anti-intuitive concepts more clearly, or with more verve and gusto, than Richard Feynman.

Paperbackpages. Published April 6th by Basic Books first published feyhman To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. May 18, WarpDrive rated it it was amazing Shelves: Let me start with a one-sentence summary: The target audience of this book is the interested layman with high school mathematics knowledge and a passion for physics: And Feynman manages, almost in a magical way, to strike a reasonable compromise, within so little space, between accuracy and level of detail on one side, and accessibility on the other side.

Now, I have read more comprehensive works on relativity, with much more emphasis on its mathematical foundational underpinnings; and I can tell you that, if you are looking for something significantly beyond the introductory level, you will not learn much from this book.

However, having said that, I would still recommend this book even to a more intermediate level reader, as the way how Feynman manages to get to the core of things with lucid rigor, and simplicity, and how he manages to holistically connect all the different aspects of the physics he is explaining, is something magic and a great pleasure to experience. Feynman is a wonderful teacher, who can get right to the core of topic with amazing clarity, and he has the gift to make even the potentially most complex concepts seem like the most obvious and commonsensical thing.

Because of this, this book is highly recommended to whoever has a minimum knowledge of maths and wants to start looking at relativity from a more detailed perspective than what offered by many generic popular science books. To make the book perfect, I would have loved to see at least some facile of the mathematical underpinning of relativity, which would have probably made, in my opinion, some critical parts of the book more clear and rigorous: And I would have loved at least a brief introduction to the concept of geodesics and of the stress-energy tensor and of tensors in generalwhich would have allowed at least a qualitative treatment of Einstein’s Field Equations.

And, to be honest, I do not see much value in the first two chapters of the book, which facikes not much more than a very cursory introduction to mathematical objects that anybody should have learned in high school anyway apart maybe from the concept of “symmetry” – maybe this space could have been used more efficiently by getting into some more detail in other areas.

Seis piezas fáciles

But I realize that there is a very delicate balance between mathematical complexity and accessibility and clarity, so it must be said that it would be extremely difficult to improve on Feynman’s pedagogical approach in his book.

In summary, this is a jewel of a little book that I thoroughly enjoyed and which deserves a full 5-star rating. View all 10 comments. Nov 04, Roy Lotz rated it really liked it Shelves: All of our ideas in physics require a certain amount of common sense in their application; they are not purely mathematical or abstract ideas. It is difficult to review these books, as their titles are so descriptive. This book, as well as its companion, Six Easy Piecesis a book that can judged by its cover.

But this is a book reviewing site, after all, so review them I must. The first book is aimed at the layperson; this book is aimed at the mathematically inclined layperson. Because the books originated in a serious physics course, but have been selected for accessibility, they fall into that vague territory that lies between popular science and science proper.

Owing to their short length and numerous omissions, they are not meant to give the reader a rigorous introduction to the subject; nor are they, on the other hand, mere titillating anecdotes or strained analogies. The best way to think of them are as Feynman samplers; you will not be able to eat your fill, but the books leave a pleasant taste in your mouth. Feynman is a wonderful teacher.

He has no patience for formalisms or conventions; he is anything but pedantic. Perhaps the best example of this is his explanation of simple machines in the first volume; he jumps past all the rules we learn in grade school, and explains it all in terms of conservation of energy. But even though he often relies on such abstract things as conservation or symmetry laws, he manages to be thoroughly concrete in his explanations. He gives you the fetnman principle, and then walks you through an example.

Feynman is descargzr quite a showman.

Seis piezas fáciles by Richard P. Feynman on Apple Books

He has a keen sense for the dramatic, and will unveil descsrgar physical principle like a magician pulling a dove from a hat. This is beautifully illustrated in this feymman volume.

Sure, we produce a lot of duds; but occasionally someone like Feynman will come along piezax makes it seem all worthwhile. Some American qualities do, it seems, run deep. William James and Ernest Hemingway. Like those two, Feynman manages to be brilliant in three syllables or less. He is a populist in the best sense of the word, reynman that he thinks, not that we ought to dumb down our subject to reach as many people as possible, but that people will be interested and fenman if only we stopped putting on airs and spoke clearly.

I look forward to spending some more time with him. Feb 20, Rama rated it it was amazing Shelves: Learn Relativity from the maestro Richard Feynman himself In the introduction to this book, Roger Penrose, another great theoretical physicist of our times, states that “Relativity is not airy-fairy philosophy, nor is space-time mere mathematical formalism.

It is a foundational ingredient of the very universe in which we live. It requires undergraduate level physics, but comes with easy to follow instructions from the great maestro himself.

Frequent references to his three volume book, Lectures in physics is valuable for readers who are familiar with his work.

Lecciones de Física de Feynman (I) |

Position and time measured in one frame of reference one observer is different from another frame of reference another observer. Therefore Lorentz transformation must be examined to understand physical reality. When we look at an object, we find that it has an apparent width and depth, but they are not fundamental properties of the object, because if we look at it from a different frame of reference it would look different.

In Lorentz transformations we see is a mixture of space and time. An event physical reality is defined by both piezzs and time because the position of an object is characterized by the time.

The description of the object also depends upon the frame of reference observer. If the observer is travelling at the speed of light, his perception of the object would be different from someone in a stationary state. The difference between spacetime, and space and the interval provides interesting sense of reality.

For descargzr, anything happening to Sun “now” will facilez earth only after 8 minutes that is how long light takes to reach us. Thus an event “right now” can not be defined, it is a mystery, because we are not affected by it right now, but can be affected later after eight minutes. The “now” is an idea or a concept of our mind, it is not physically definable at the moment, and we have to wait to observe it failes by distance in light time. The example of page 64 establishes that simultaneity is not a unique thing in the universe, because it means different things to different observers.

Relativistic dynamics; objects moving at high speeds during forward motion comparable to the speed of light shortens its physical length, and also time slows down time-dilation for the stationary observer, but the time remains the same for the moving astronaut. Thus for an observer moving under uniform velocity will not know he is in motion. The uniform velocity facles not be detected without looking from outside, but the uniform rotation about a fixed axis can be detected without looking from outside.

As noted earlier, the moving objects become heavier proportional to the speed given by the famous Einstein’s equation, and at close to the speed of light the mass becomes enormous, and hence sufficient energy is not available to move anything beyond the speed o light.

There are many websites that explains the transition from Newtonian mechanics to the theory of relativity to explain physical reality.

Some of them are referenced below, but is great to read Richard Feynamn, because he did not like scientific ideas without a good physical foundation, and his approach is strikingly original. His efforts are strenuous in teaching and making the reader understand the basic concepts. I especially recommend chapters 3 and 4 for a quick appreciation of the subject: Highly recommended to all readers interested in physics of reality.

Pretty aptly titled book.

In contrast to ” Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher “, there was a lot more mathematical formalism that was a little tough to follow, but with patience could be understood. The six lectures are put together so you can better understand Einsteins’ special and general relativity. The book really made me appreciate the power of mathematics and interpretation to determine the nature of the real world.

I actually found out how they d Pretty aptly titled book. The book also had Feynman’s characteristic humor and crazy imagination to illustrate really tough physics and mathematics. I really wish Feynman’s entire lecture set wasn’t so expensive: Jul 18, Blair added it Shelves: This book is aimed at teaching Special Relativity to students who have high school algebra thus can handle a co-ordinate transform and Newtonian mechanics.

The introduction promises us an innovative approach to understanding physics. The first innovation appears to be the concept of relativistic mass. OK, this was written inand maybe before that students were simply told to memorize the Lorentz transformation matrix. Well, the strength of a magnetic field depends on its frame of reference, and the field the proton feels is much weaker.

Really, the only value of this part of the book for me was the challenge of reformulating his explanations in more modern terms. However, the chapter on Curved Space was superb. I found it interesting that the curvature of a sphere is the same as for a disk with a temperature that gradually increases out from the desfargar, which causes anything on it to expand accordingly.

Later, he considers the best path to move a projectile between two points in a fixed amount of time, using only relativity theory.


PIC Microcontroller Tutorials using MPLAB XC8 Compilers and MPLAB X IDE. Intended for beginners, electronics hobbyists, students, professionals and. 13 jan. ESCOLA POLITÉCNICA SISTEMA DE COMUNICAÇÃO BLUETOOTH UTILIZANDO MICROCONTROLADOR Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso. Este temporizador de reloj utiliza un microcontrolador PIC16F para mostrar 3 Curso de Gaita Gallega. PIC16F Timer Reloj Digital.

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It was hard and could be better Final version of my binary clock.

The original design had the PIC chip controlling the display and doing the timekeeping, however, this was unreliable and the clock gained about a minute a week.

This design uses a realtime clock chip and the Durso chips reads the time from it every second over I2C, this has the advantage of being able to pid a backup batery to keep the time even when the 16d628a is disconnected, although I am not using this feature in this circuit. You can find a how-to for how to make this clock here: The top view of the PCB of the light controller unit. On the left are the 3 channel inputs to the receiver and the output to the slave unit, then vertically with the sticker is the PIC 16FA microcontroller.

In my blog I explain how this circuit should work. No meu blog eu explico como este circuito deve funcionar. This is the rear-view of the clock.

Embedded Lab

The small perf-board mounted at the upper left of the meter is the clock electronics. The clock program in it’s current prototype form is assembler instructions in about twice as many lines of source code.

There is one control for the clock, the set button. Pressing this button advances the time by 1 hour. If you loop past midnight, the minutes is reset to 0. This means that the clock can only be set accurately at the top of the hour. There is only one output used to run the clock, and that is a CPU port pin that is pulse-width modulated at about 16 KHz.

The duty cycle of the pulse controls the meter deflection. Some purists may imply that I am actually using 3 more bits for output, and that is technically correct.

pic framework upic: Topics by

The LEDs provided me some debugging outputs, however, they are not needed any longer. It is interesting to watch the 5 Hz LED blink. Because the meter is center-zero, I had to create an curxo voltage.

The white pot does that. The black pot is the deflection. It’s pretty simple to calibrate.

Rangkaian FLL sebagian telah disolder. View all All Photos Tagged 16fa.

Now we play the same language by El Endemoniau. Musical disagree by El Endemoniau. See the scream by El Endemoniau. Circuit turned off by Jean Michel. Button pressed by Jean Michel. Energized circuit standby by Jean Michel. The setup by Arjan Scherpenisse. Test in protoboard experiment 2 ; by Jean Michel.

The circuit on protoboard by Jean Michel. Rear view of the one-bit clock.

Heart rate measurement from fingertip – Embedded Lab

I’ll take a picture of the schematic and post it. Everything working button pressed! DSC by Kirk Maroushek.


ICL, ICL Datasheet, ICL 3 1/2 Digit LCD, buy ICL ICL datasheet, ICL pdf, ICL data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, Intersil, 3 1/2 Digit LCD/LED, Low Power Display, A/D Converters with. ICL 3 1/2 Digit LCD/LED, Low Power Display, A/D Converters With Overrange Recovery. 31/2 Digit Details, datasheet, quote on part number: ICL

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Converter with Overrange Recovery. Included are seven segment decoders. The ICL brings together a combination of high. Low Noise – Less Than 15?

V, zero drift of less than 1? On Chip Clock and Reference. True differential inputs and reference are useful in all. No Additional Active Circuits Required. Dataheet Power – Less Than 1mW. Surface Mount Package Available. Finally, the true economy of single power. These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures. Thermal Datashest Typical, Note 2. Reference Input Voltage Either Input.

(PDF) ICL7136 Datasheet download

Maximum Storage Temperature Range. Maximum Lead Temperature Soldering 10s. Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the.

Input voltages may exceed the supply voltages provided the input current is limited to? See Tech Brief TB for details. Common Mode Rejection Ratio. Scale Factor Temperature Coefficient. Temperature Coefficient of Analog. ICL is tested in the circuit of Figure 1. Back plane drive is in phase with segment drive for “off” segment, degrees out of phase for “on” segment.

Frequency is 20 times conversion. Average DC component is less than 50mV. Not tested, guaranteed by design.

ICL Datasheet(PDF) – Maxim Integrated Products

Typical Applications and Test Circuits. Design Information Summary Sheet. Digital supply is generated internally. Direct drive with digital logic supply amplitude. Driver Pin for Segment “D” of the display units digit.

Driver Pin for Segment “C” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “B” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “A” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “F” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “G” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “E” of the display units digit. Driver Pin for Segment “D” of the display tens digit.

Driver Pin for Segment “C” of the display tens digit. Driver Pin for Segment “B” of the display tens digit. Driver Pin for Segment “A” of the display tens digit.

Driver Pin for Segment “F” of the display tens digit. Driver Pin for Segment “E” of the display tens digit. Driver pin for segment “D” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “B” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “F” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “E” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for both “A” and “B” segments of the display thousands digit.

Driver pin for the datasheer sign of the display. Driver pin for segment “G” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “A” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “C” of the display hundreds digit. Driver pin for segment “G” of the display tens digit. To be connected to integrating capacitor. Input buffer amplifier output.

To be connected to integrating resistor. To be connected to auto-zero capacitor. To be connected to input voltage to be measured. Internal voltage reference output. Connection pins for reference capacitor. Input pins for reference voltage to the device. REF HI should be positive reference to.

Device clock generator circuit connection pins. Second, the reference capacitor is charged to the. Third, a feedback loop is closed around the. Since the comparator is included in the loop, the A. Z accuracy is limited only by the noise of the system. During signal integrate, the auto-zero loop is opened, the.

During auto-zero three things ick7136. First, input high and low. The input can accept differential voltages anywhere within the. This differential voltage can be within a wide. However, care must be exercised to assure the integrator.

A worst case condition would be a. The negative input signal.

The final phase is de-integrate, or reference integrate. The integrator output can datasheey to within 0. Circuitry within the chip ensures that the capacitor. The time required for the. The reference voltage can be generated anywhere within the. Specifically the digital reading displayed is: The main source of. If there is a large common mode voltage, the. The final phase is zero integrator. First, input low is shorted to. Second, the reference capacitor is charged.

This difference in reference for positive or.

Finally, a feedback loop is closed. Under normal conditions, this phase lasts for. This pin is included primarily to set the common mode. This is selected to. When the total supply voltage is large. The limitations of the on chip reference should also be. Due to their higher thermal resistance. Also the linearity in. Devices with icll7136 positive TC. This is because over-range is a low dissipation.


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Para ellos, la capacidad de generar productos, servicios o procesos novedosos e innovadores es esencial para el crecimiento sostenido.

Tiene que agnar comercializada por empresas mexicanas [4]. Es necesario que las empresas innovadoras tengan el capital y recursos necesarios para comercializar de forma competitiva sus productos y servicios en el mundo.

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Esos tres elementos son ganzr del ecosistema local: Esto deriva en que seamos el tercer mayor exportador de profesionales del mundo. Profesionales entusiastas que se han marchado en busca de mejores horizontes, mejores ingresos y entornos adecuados donde puedan desarrollar sus ideas.

La creatividad y adaptabilidad de los profesionistas mexicanos es conocida y reconocida internacionalmente. Es en las innovaciones disruptivas que el mayor valor es generado.

No hay la cultura, ni los mecanismos, ni los incentivos adecuados para que los grandes corporativos mexicanos innoven de esta forma. El emprendedor no tiene acceso al financiamiento apropiado ni al capital de meate adecuado.

Por lo anterior, el capital de riesgo extranjero rara vez es invertido en empresas mexicanas. Esto lo logran principalmente de dos formas: No tiene forma de compartir el riesgo. No hay mecanismos de salida que generen liquidez en el mercado. El que comercializa primero la idea se queda en general con el mayor beneficio. Es una diferencia abismal. Lastimosamente, hacen y terminan haciendo productos y servicios a la medida melqte cada cliente, y quedan vulnerables ante los melatr empaquetados que han sido desarrollados en el extranjero.

Los mecanismos de opciones han sido el principal instrumento para atraer talento en las empresas extranjeras, ya que permite compartir el valor incremental futuro de la empresa con los empleados clave. Los profesionistas talentosos, los emprendedores motivados y el capital de riesgo deben estar disponibles y alineados.

El mundo ha cambiado. Hay una ventana de oportunidad que se ha estado cerrando. Where innovation creates value. McKinsey Quarterly, Feb http: Consultado el 24 de septiembre del The Power of Productivity: Inc, University of Melafe Press.

Harvard Business Review Press. Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development. La probabilidad es casi la misma:.

La probabilidad se reduce para este caso particular en 0. Lleva varios meses sin que nadie se lo gane para que llegue a los niveles actuales. As we add more nodes, Networks grow exponentially in number of connections and complexity. With billions of connected devices, the Internet has become more complex than any other human invention. Nevertheless, we continue to believe that we are in control of the Internet and that we can predict or prevent what happens within it.

Other networks of different nature, such as the economy or the payment industry, have also grown in complexity. The simultaneous growth of all these networks has triggered an exponential increase of insecurity and fraud. Your credit card, signature and logins are all part of your identity. Digital representation of our identities can now be massively stolen, identically counterfeit and anonymously used.

The laws that previously protected against these abuses are no longer useful since the perpetrators are usually abroad. The financial industry and the existing technologies and processes are not ready for a borderless and massive threat such as this one. Most people continue to believe that the economy or the stock exchange are predictable.

In the same way, we would like to think that what happens in the Internet and on our corporate networks is under control. Spam, security breaches, identity theft, Internet fraud, information leaks, malware, spyware and even cyber warfare are all happening, all the time, everywhere. Nevertheless, they are not predictable.


We cannot control what we do not know. The information security and fraud prevention industries have quickly grown in the past few years. All developments though, continue melatd be centered in the same two mechanisms: All security mechanisms that strive to protect confidentiality and integrity will always rely on a combination of these two models.

To authenticate digitally we use usernames and passwords, certificates, process IDs, IP addresses, cookies, tokens, one-time-passwords, biometrics and even credit card numbers are a kind of authentication. If these credentials were correctly verified and authorized, monitoring and alerting would not be necessary. But all of them can be copied, brute-forced, sniffed, spoofed, ganra or used through man-in-the-middle attacks. Digital authentication is fallible, therefore filtering that relies on this authentication will only stop part of the attacks.

The rest should be detected by finding anomalies. Antivirus, antispyware and intrusion prevention systems work this way.

Nevertheless, determining anomalies is much harder than authenticating. Most systems rely on signatures of known attacks or malware, organized into blacklists.


Others use expert systems were thresholds or suspicious actions are pre-defined by experts. Still others use heuristic approaches or basic neural networks that mdlate to find anomalies.

The main problem is authenticating. An attack may be part of a legitimate network packet, a legitimate application, a legitimate user or even legitimate credit card number. It may be impossible to distinguish a fraudulent transaction or a network attack from a legitimate action. Stopping known attacks is sometimes easy because you can search for the same patterns. Criminals know this and continuously work to circumvent detection.

If they steal login credentials or card information and impersonate real users, most times there will be no easy or cost effective way to deter them. Effort is another problem that arises. Most end-users, credit card holders or even system administrators are not willing to put in more effort just to be more secure. If you ask a card holder to call the issuer in order to verify his transaction, he will most probably gxnar switch cards. The same will happen with almost all security authentications.

If there is an easier way, most people will take it. And if businesses or financial institutions risk losing customers or transactions because of increased security, they will most probably back off. If the amount is not too high, they can always charge everyone a small premium next year to make up for fraud losses.

Card users pay back through increased prices, interest rates and fees. The worldwide card industry now absorbs over a hundred billion dollars in fraud each year. The only beneficiary being, organized crime. Internet banking, money orders, bank wire transfers, Internet trading, online auctions and all kinds of digital transactions have the same problems to authenticate users ganaf react to fraud.

If ganra talk about network or host intrusion ganwr, they also have similar weaknesses. The main problem is that there is a large gray zone between what is considered normal behavior and the real anomalies. All prevention systems have very high rates of false-positives and false-negatives. All networks, merchants, processors or financial institutions still use humans to ,elate to filter out these gray zones.

The volume is so high that what mealte considered to gaanar lower threats may be automatically passed. And if they believe there is a possibility of melatd a legitimate customer, they will most probably allow the transaction. Finally, there are large amounts of human mistakes or omissions. Numenta has developed the most advanced artificial intelligence engine mflate date.

This technology known as Hierarchical Temporal Memory HTM emulates the human neo-cortex and is capable of predicting patterns based on previous learnt experience. Their technology will forever change the way computers synthesize information, recognize patterns and predict future behaviours.

And they should do this without increasing user effort several authentication mechanisms or merchant costs such as biometrics or new devices. By using Ganra technology this melatr be reversed. Instead of trying to authenticate persons based on additional on-site security mechanisms, HTM networks should allow us to centralize prediction and respond with a level of certainty for each particular transaction. An HTM network would compare the transaction against the prediction for that particular user and deliver a level of certainty for the legitimacy of the transaction.

The solution we are working on will try to predict the behavioral patterns of users. This would allow us to authenticate each user individually, not only based on their login or card number, but also based on ganr transactional pattern such as frequency of use, types of transactions, geographical proximity, serialized purchases, etc. Employing conventional technology would require customizing rules by hand for each cardholder or Internet banking user.

This would be almost impossible. In addition to this, the speed required to query and answer thousands of transactions per second may be impossible to reach with other solutions. I decided it would be a good idea to include the original English version in my blog. Mexico has a geographic complexity that has limited its ability to develop and maintain traditional infrastructure.

These historical limitations would be overcome if our future competitive advantages and our melatr as a country were set on developing a Knowledge-based society. The resulting Knowledge Economy completely changes the existing paradigms in relation to growth, competitiveness, employment and social development.

Several mountain ranges and two peninsulas cut out and segment our country into small pieces.


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The most common method to drive DC motors in two directions under control of a computer is with an H-bridge motor driver.

H-bridges can be built from scratch with bi-polar junction transistors BJT or with field effect transistors FETor can be purchased as an integrated unit in a single integrated circuit package such as the L The L is simplest and inexpensive for low current motors, For high current motors, it is less expensive to build your own H-bridge from scratch.

The L is an integrated circuit motor driver that can be used for simultaneous, bi-directional control of two small motors.

The L is limited to mA, but in reality can only handle much small currents unless you have done some serious heat sinking to keep the case temperature down. Unsure about whether the L will work with your motor?

Hook up the circuit and run l293en motor while keeping your finger on the chip. If it gets too hot to touch, you can’t use it with your motor. Note to ME students: The L comes in a standard pin, dual-in line integrated circuit package. There is an L and an LD part number.

Pick the “D” version because it has built in flyback diodes to minimize inductive voltage spikes. A more recent, improved specification, pin-for-pin compatible chip is recommended for new designs: Data sheet PDF fileKb.

The pinout for the L in the pin package is shown below in top view. Pin 1 is at dayasheet top left when the notch in the package faces up. Note that the names for pin functions may be slightly different than what is shown in the following diagrams. The following schematic shows how to connect the L to your motor and the Arduino.

LNE Datasheet pdf – Quadruple Half-H Drivers – Texas Instruments

Each motor takes 3 Arduino pins. See notes below for a two Arduino pin datqsheet. If you are only using one motor, leave L pins 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 empty. Assume you have only one motor connected with the enable tied to Arduino Pin 3, and the two direction controls tied to Arduino Pins 4 and 5.